OUTLINE OF FRACTURES
• classification of fractures- caused by sudden injury, fatigue or stress fracture, pathological fractures
• Closed fracture, open fracture with & without wound
• Pattern of fracture- transverse, oblique, spiral, comminuted, impacted, compressed, greenstickoccurs below 10
• Repair phases- stage of hematoma> stage of proliferation> stage of calus> stage of consolidation> stageof remodeling
• Rate of union is high in children & slow as get older
• Sites of stress fracture -metatarsal, tibia & fibula
• Common causes of pathological fracture - cancer, bone cyst, paget’s disease
• Clinical features of fracture- deformity, swelling, visible bruises, local tenderness, impairment of function, abnormal motility.
• Treatment of fracture- reduction, immobilization, rehabilitation
• Reduction- manipulative, mechanical reduction, operative reduction
• Internal fixation- plates & screws, bone graph, compression screw plate, circumferential wires & bands
• Open fracture- contaminated & non contaminated
• Complications of fractures- infection, mom union, mal union, a vascular necrosis, shortening
• Nerve injury- neuropraxia, axonotmesis, neurotmesis
• post traumatic ossification= myositis ossificants
• Post traumatic osteodistrophy = reflux sympathetic dystrophy syndrome
• Growth occurres away from the elbow & towards the knee
• Fracture of capitulum of humerrus may lead to non union even in children
• Avulsion injury does not cause premature union of epiphysis
• Dislocation can’t occur without ligament injury
• Strain - incomplete rapture of ligament
• Sprain- acute ligament injury
• In extension subluxations of spine, anterior longitudinal ligament is ruptured
• Automatic emptying of urinary bladder when full after3 months of cord injury- automatic bladder
• Commonest fracture - collie’s fracture
• In shoulder dislocations- anterior dislocation is common
• Rotator cuff include- supra spinous, infra spinous, sub scapularis
• Immobilization is not needed if fracture of humerous is impacted
• Volkmann’s ischemic contracture occurs if supracondylar fracture block brachial artery
• Montegia fracture- fracture of upper end of ulna with radial head dislocation
• Galeazzy fracture- fracture of radial shaft with inferior radio ulnar dislocation
• Collies fracture- fracture of lower end of radius -fracture occurres 2 cm below the articular surfaces lower end displaced backwards reverse to colli - Smith fracture
• Scaphoid fracture is most complicated fracture in it, proximal part is prone to a vascular necrosis
• Rapture of urethra in hip fracture is on the membranous part
• Pott’s fracture- fracture of bones relates to ankle
• Ankle sprain - injury to medial & lateral ligament of ankle
मंगलवार, 28 दिसंबर 2010
A) WHAT IS AYURVEDA?
Ayurveda is a science of medicine. The word meaning is Ayu = life and Veda = science [science of life]. Which was came in existence three to five thousand years ago and as said in text, its pioneer is lord Brahma. After time laps it progressed and different branches were made. The following shlok explains the defn of ayurveda.
"Hitahitam Sukham Dukham Ayustashya Hitahitam |
Manam Cha Tachcha Yatroktam Ayurveda Sa Uchchyate ||" ch. su. 1/41
i.e. the science which deals with the maan [measure] of hita-ayu, ahita-ayu, sukh-ayu, dukh-ayu of an individuals life is called as ayurveda. Where
hita-ayu - is
ahita-ayu - is
sukh-ayu - is
dukh-ayu - is
Ayurveda is world's oldest medicinal science as known today. It was being studied by different Indian scholars and foreign students and introduced throughout globe. Many principles and scientifically researched data studied by aacharyas [sages] were spread to other countries and different systems of medicine were evolved. As the India [Bhaarat] was famous for its richness not only in wealth but also in education as world's largest universities -TAKSHASHILA, VIKRAMSHILA, & NALANDA were present with over three thousand on-board staff, ten thousand students, and above fifty different kinds of subjects were offered to study absolutely free of cost. Amongst the subjects the science of medicine was named as "Ayurveda".
This science explains that the base for living is supported as four pillars viz., 1. Dharma - religion or humanity rules, 2. Artha - money for living, 3. Kaama - desire of different things, 4. Moksha - salvation the ultimate aim of life. This is the peculiarity of Ayurveda that it offers a person to know his aim of life.
Further the branches of Ayurveda are
v Sharira rachana - deals with anatomy of body.
v Sharira kriya - deals with normal functions of body.
v Padarth vignan - deals with basic principles of science and philosophy.
v Swasthavrutta - deals with preventive and social aspects of medicine.
v Agada tantra and Vidhi vaidhaka - science dealt with poisons and treatment and medico legal aspects are included.
v Dravya guna - includes Pharmaco-gnosy and pharmacology.
v Rasashastra - is best among all. Which deals with mercurial preparations and its curative effects on body.
v Bhaishajya kalpana - deals with the preparation of drug i.e. pharmaceutical science.
v Roga nidan - deals with science of knowing disease and its effects on body.
v Patanjali yoga shastra - deals with total yogic techniques.
v Kaaya chikitsa - general medicine.
v Baala chikitsa - deals with diseases of infants and mother - pediatrics.
v Prasuti tantra - deals with pregnancy of women and delivery -gynecology.
v Graha chikitsa - palmistry, body language system, treatment on basis of planets.
v Shaalaakya chikitsa - ear, nose, throat and diseases of head are dealt.
v Netra chikitsa - diseases of eye are dealt - ophthalmology.
v Shalya chikitsa - deals as a science of surgery.
v Jaraa - Rasaayana chikitsa anti aging treatment.
v Vrushya - Vaajikarana - Aphrodisiac - treatment for sexual disorders.
B) WHAT IS DRAVYA GUNA SHASTRA?
Dravya guna shastra is a leading branch of Ayurveda which deals with pharmacognosy ie nomenclature, morphology, histology and ecological aspects of drug; pharmacodynamics ie properties, chemical composition and function of drug on body; and pharmacotherapeutics ie indication of drugs, adverse effects and doses etc., of drug.
The original texts like Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Shardangadhar Samhita, Bhav-Prakaash, Rasaratna Samuchchaya, etc., contain the vital information of each drug [Dravya] of its raw form, pharmacological form. They have neatly dealt with this subject, the scattered form of information is again to be collected and concealed in one place is the need of the hour. This action dissolves the problem faced today and will improve the researchers and students learning of this vital information.
All the pharmacological aspects are dealt in this branch in order to study a drug in detail to know its mode of action and various effects on body. Thus, this branch is of vital importance. All the raw drugs, minerals, etc are dealt in order to explore action of each raw drug. Which leads to an ultimate know how to mix many drugs together, their processing [samskaar], pharmacological form, rout of administration, various contra-indications and indications. The information produced thereafter will lead to understand the aspects more clearly and will open the door of unlimited information. The latest researches are conducted considering many pros and cons and evolve new techniques of administration, improve the drugs form, use in various disorders, with consideration of drug interaction. That is the ultimate aim to be achieved by the Indian scientists.
The latest researches confirm that the Ayurvedic proprietary drugs should be used under medical supervision, as auto-therapy may lead to serious ill effect. all the drugs have certain contra-indications, so if the drug is introduced in such contraindicated condition may cause harm to body. So in order to know this aspect in detail, this branch helps very well. And thus it becomes an essential task for physician to its deep knowledge.
According to Ayurveda, the properties of drug are designed on the basis of its RASA - taste, GUNA - characters, VIRYA - potency, VIPAKA - taste after digestion, PRABHAVA - special action and DOSHAGNATA - ability to act on particular dosha. So to know the specific action of the drug these are essential to know. And is exclusively dealt in Dravya guna.
C) WHAT IS CASSIA FISTULA / AARAGWADHA?
Cassia is a genus of herbs, shrubs and trees, which belong to the Fabaceae, or Bean Family. Most species are tropical to subtropical with only a few species able to tolerate moderate frost. All prefer full sun and soil consisting of sandy loam. Cassia is a very large genus with about 500 species, the better known members of which are fine flowering trees. To many, the finest cassia is the fistula.
Cassia is a pod-like fruit, 30-50 cm long. It is reported to increase detoxification, and many newcomers to raw food have found it helpful. It is recommended to eat it for breakfast (and no other food until lunchtime), and to drink liberal amounts of water. Cassia is a kind leguminous plant. It is outward 30 to 50 cm long, a wooden bar. Indian Laburnum had been traditionally used as a purgative and to support healthy veins. Indian laburnum should not to be confused with Senna (Cassia angustifolia).
Purging Cassia is a late spring to mid-summer bloomer (with the heaviest blooming in June) that puts on a massive golden yellow floral display. The fragrant flowers are very attractive to bees and butterflies. The plant is native to S.E. Asia,
Pacific Islands, Central and South America. The tree has been used medicinally since Egyptian times. In Iranian herbal medicine, external applications of Cassia fistula are used.
2. Historical And Mythological Review:
Purging cassia inhabits
Egypt and the Indies, and has become extensively diffused in various tropical countries, as China, Hindustan, , etc. The part used in medicine is the fruit or pods, and those are to be preferred which are heavy and new, and do not, when shaken, make a rattling noise from the seeds being loose within them. West Indies, Brazil
3. Informative References In Ayurveda:
Ayurvedic science has main 6 textbooks created by respective scientists. These books contains highly coded information, which states many principles and the attribute for which these are considered to be the major texts is that these can be expanded and elaborated by scientists time to time after due consideration and complete authorization of logically accepted information.
a) Bruhatrayis :
Here, bruha means big or large and trayi means group of three text.
Viz., 1) Charaka Samhita by Charaka
2) Sushruta Samhita by Sushruta
3) Ashtang Hriday And Asthtang Samgraha by Vaghbhatta
1) Charaka Samhita:
this book is considered to best for medicine. As it has been said that whatever is explained in Charaka Samhita is explained everywhere but whatever not explained in Charaka Samhita in not found in any other text of this science. Thus it is known that this book has whole information ziest. Which can be expanded to unlimited extent after research and development of different aspects as like proverb in Gujrati "gagar maan saagar" i.e. sea in pot.
References in Sutra Sthana:
v Aaragwadha has been taken as an essential fruit [ phalini pradhana dravya gana ] in panchakarma treatment. 1/84.
v Aaragwadha is considered as an essential drug in purgative drugs group [ virechaka dravya gana ]. 2/10.
v It is The Best bahir-parimarjan dravya. Aragwadha leaf, edagaja seeds, karanja seeds, vaasaa, giloya, maina-phala, haldi, and daruhaldi are mixed and made into paste form to administer in external aplication in kustha [skin diseases]. 3/2.
v In 3rd group of 6 maha-kashay varga the 3rd kustha maha-kashay varga has Aaragwadha as one of the kusthagna dravya. 4/11.
v In 3rd group of 6 maha-kashay varga the 4th kandugna [anti-prurities] maha-kashay varga aaragwadha is one of the kandugna dravya. 4/11.
v Aaragwadha is one of the ingredient of trifladi kwath along with trifla which if used for few days as a medication for prameha it definitely subsides. 23/10.
v Aaragwadha is one of the ingredient of mustakadi kwath which is used in most of all santarpan-janita vyadhis for definite cure. 23/12.
References in Vimaan Sthaan:
v Aaragwadha is one of the tikta skandha dravya along with such other drugs combination the kwath is made and according to measurement madhu, taila lavana are added and administered as a basti in kapha roga patient. And if is to be administered as a basti in pitta roga patient add madhu and gruta according to measurement. 8/143.
References in Chikitsaa Staana:
v Aaragwadha is one the ingredient of vatsakaadi kashay used as an jwara nashak kashay [anti-pyretic decoction]. 3/205.
v Aaragwadha is used as a virechanakarak dravya [purgative drug], the majja [ marrow ] along with milk, administered in jwara vyadhi. 3/232.
v Majja [ marrow ] of Aaragwadha along with other ingredients and perticular process made into kwath and used as basti for management of jwara. This is called as patoladi niruha basti. 3/241.
v Majja [ marrow ] of aaragwadha along with other ingredients and perticular process made into kwath and used as basti for management of jwara. This is called as aaragwadhadi niruha basti. 3/245.
v Majja of aaragwadha with madhu and sharkara added according to measurment and used in management of raktapitta rogi [ patien with internal haemhorrhage ] for virechana purpose. 4/57.
v Patra [ leaf ] of aaragwadha along with other ingredients boiled in water, filtered and that water is used in management of kustha roga. Also it is used in vamana, or paste of above dravya for application over skin, or this paste is used in udgarshana [ pasting drug with massage and then bath ]. These measures also benefits in shotha [ edema ] and pandu. 7/91, 96, 97.
v Roots of aaragwadha are along with other ingredients made into paste form and applied over the scars formed by kustha rogas. This paste heals the wounds and forms straight surface of skin. 7/160, 161.
v Majja [ marrow ] of aaragwadha with milk is administered for virechana in pittodara rogi after their samshodhana. 13/69.
v Majja [ marrow ] of aaragwadha along with other ingredients are made into kshaara. This kshaara is called as duraalabhaadi kshaara. Which is used in management of grahani roga and to increase the power of grahani [ duodenum ]. 15/179.
v Majja of aaragwadha along with trikatu used in management of kaphaja pandu roga for definite cure. 16/58.
v Moolatwak [ rootbark ] of aaragwadha along with other ingredients are taken and by process pushkarmoolaadi hima is prepared. This hima is administered before,with and after the lunch along with madhu as vehicle in management of kapahaja kaasa. 18/111
v Aaragwadha or its leaf along with other ingredients made into paste form and applied over wounds of kaphaj visarpa. 21/88, 89
v Aaragwadha with other ingredients made into kwath by shadnga-paaniya method and administered along with madhu or again digested along with yavaagu this is used in management of kaphaja mutrakruchchha. 26/57.
v Bark of aaragwadha along with other ingredients made into dhooma-varti called shatahyadi dhoom-varti used in management of vaataja pinas roga. 26/135.
v Leaf of aaragwadha along with other leaf ingredients made into vegetable used in management of urustambha. 27/27
v Majja of aaragwadha along with other ingredients made into churna called as sangershtadi churna and used with madhu or mixed in water or mixed in water of cow's curd and madhu and administered in management of urustambha for definite cure. 27/34
References in Kalpa Sthaana:
v Synonyms of aaragwadha. 8/3
v Gunas [ characters ] of aaragwadha. -
v Method of Collection of fruit and storage -
v Administration of drug in child from 4 to 12 yrs
v Different drug preparation from plant
v Snuhi churna made from aaragwadha and other ingredients given bhavana for 7 days and added ghe in 1kola and then administered for virechana [ purgation ]. 10/13
References in Siddhi sthana:
v Eranda mooladi basti is made from aaragwadha and other ingredients and administered in management of pain in thighs, chest, legs, sacrum, bach ache, aadmaan [ distention of abdomen ] with pain, ashmari [ stones in various organs ], madhumeha [ diabetes mallitus, arsha [ piles ] and grahani [ malabsorbtion syndrome ], also it corrects the agni [ digestive capacity ], does lekhan [ by its scraping action it collects and expels the dosha out ], removes the excessive layers of kapha, clears up way of normal vayu and apan vayu, etc. 3/39
2) Sushruta Samhita:
This book was written by maharshi Sushruta in BC. It is considered as best for its information on surgery. The vast subjects of many complicated diseases have been simplified and explained. He was renowned surgen and diviced major operational methods and many critical aspacts were brought to light.
References in Sutra Sthana:
3) Astang Samgraha:
this book was written by maharshi vaghbhatta in 400 AD. This book is considered best in its explination of sutra sthana. He has simplified many aspects and serially ordered in such a way that it becomes easy to read, search, easy to use and chapters are placed in correct chronological form so that any new comer to this science will really find it easy to read.
References in Sutra Sthana:
v aaragwadha is one of the ingredient of kustagna mahakashay, and kandugna mahakashay. 15/18,19
v aaragwadha is one of the drug included in aaragwadhaadi gana. These group of drugs are mainly used in management of chardi [emesis], kustha [ skin diseases ], visha vikar [ poisoning ], jwara [ pyrexia ], kapha vikar, and kandu [ itching ].16/11.
v Aaragwadha is one of the drug included in shyaamadi gana and these are maily used in management of kustha, visha, aruchi, kapha roga, hriday shoola, and mutra kruchchra. 16/39.
v Aaragwadha is one of the drug included in tiktaskandha dravya gana. 18/22.
v Aaragwadha along with other mentioned dravya made into kwath form and administered in management of diseases ooccurredby ati-brumhana [excessive nourishment]. 24/37,38
v Aaragwadha along with other drugs used in making of kshara. 39/10.
b) Laghutrayis :
Here, laghu means small and trayi means group of three text.
Viz., 1) Bhav-prakash by Bhavmishra
2) Shardangadhara samhita by Shardangadhara
3) Maadhav Nidan by Madhavkar
This book was written by
Cultivated as an ornamental plant for attractive yellow blossoms in pendant racemes and grows in many parts of
. It is one of the most widespread of forest trees in India . Usually occurring in deciduous forest, ascending to 1200 m in the sub-Himalayan tract, common in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and India South India.
The plant is native to S.E. Asia,
Pacific Islands, Central and South America.
This division of pharmacology deals with the naming, classification, variety, and morphological, histological & ecological aspects of drug.
Naming system comprises following aspects.
a) Latin Name And Family With Description
b) Synonyms In Sanskrit
c) Vernacular Names
Grouping system comprises following aspects.
f) Ecological aspect
a) Latin Name And Family With Description:
Latin name: Cassia fistula Linn.
[Pronunciation: KASS-ee-uh FIST-yoo-luh]
Cassia = Cassia is a genus of herbs, shrubs and trees which belong to the Fabaceae, or Bean Family. Most species are tropical to subtropical with only a few species able to tolerate moderate frost. All prefer full sun and soil consisting of sandy loam. Most of which have purgative qualities. The leaves of several species furnish the senna used in medicine.
Cassia [genus] varieties include:
C. fistula - Golden Shower
C. bakeriana (pink)
C. grandis - Pink/Coral Shower
C. javanica - Apple Blossom Shower
C. javanica x C. fistula (white-yellow)
C. nodosa (Javanica)
C. surattensis (yellow)
C. x nealiae - Rainbow Shower
Fistula = tube, pipe or reed like fruit.
Family: leguminosae [ Fabaceae ] the plants having fruit like tube or pipe.
The Caesalpiniaceae are mostly tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs comprising about 150 genera and 2,200 species. The leaves are stipulate, alternate, and mostly pinnately compound but may be bipinnate or simple. Like the other legume families the petiole base is commonly enlarged into a pulvinus. The flowers are in racemes, spikes or cymes, are zygomorphic, and are mostly weakly to strongly perigynous. The perianth commonly consists of a calyx and corolla of 5 segments each; the petals are distinct, overlapping (i.e., imbricate) in bud, with the posterior one (flag or banner) innermost in position. The androecium usually consists of 1-10 distinct or variously united stamens, some of which are commonly reduced to nonfunctional staminodes. The pistil is simple, consisting of one style and stigma, and a superior ovary with one locule containing 2-many marginal ovules. The fruit is usually a legume.
Caesalpiniaceae [species] verities include:
Upa kula: Latakaranja
b) Synonyms In Sanskrit:
Aaragwadho Rajvruksha: ShampakasChaturangula: |
Aarevato Vyadhighata: Krutamala: Suvarnaka: ||
Karnikaro Dirghaphala: Swarnang: Swarnabhushana: |
v Aaragwadha [Which Destroys Diseases]
v Rajvruksha [Looks Beautiful Among Others]
v Shampak [Results With Every Goodness]
v Chaturangul [Gap Between Two Node In The Fruit Is Four Finger]
v Aarevata [Which Removes Malas Out From Body]
v Vyadhigaat [Which Destroys Diseases]
v Krutmal [Which Has Worn Many Ful-Maalaa]
v Suvarnak [With Beautiful Yellow Color]
v Dirghaphala [Having Long Fruit]
v Swarnabhushana [With Golden Yellow Flowers]
c) Vernacular Names:
v English - Purging Cassia [Due To Purgative Property]
Gold Rush Tree
Golden Shower Tree
Pudding Pipe Tree
v Hindi - Amaltaas
v Kannada - Heggake
v Marathi - Bahawa
v Gujarati - Garmado
v Panjabi - Girdanali
v Marwadi - Girmalo
v Sindhi - Chhimakani
v Bengali - Sondal
v Tamil - Kondren
v Telugu - Aaregvadhamu Rela
v Malyalam - Kanikonna
v Oriya - Sunari
v Kandha - Druhelumrahanu
v Munda - Hari
v Santal - Pepenaeja
v Arabic - Khiyashambar
v Spanish - Vaina de Cassia
, Central & South America - Cañafístula Mexico
According to Charaka -
v Kusthgna -
v Kandugna -
v Virechana -
v Tiktaskandha -
According to Sushruta -
v Aaragwadhadi -
v Shyamadi -
v Adhobhagahara -
It is the study of external appearance of plant and its parts.
v Form: Spreading Tree
v Growth Rate: Fast
v Tree Structure: Strong Structure
v Size: Moderate Sized
v Height: 30 To 40 Feet
v Spread / Girth: 30 To 40 Feet
v Crown Uniformity: Irregular Outline or Silhouette
v Crown Shape: Oval; Upright; Vase Shape
v Crown Density: Moderate
v Texture: Medium
v Bark: Greenish-Grey or Brick Red.
v Bark Scaling: Smooth And Small Woody Scale Upto 1.5 Cm
v Trunk/Bark/Branches: Droop As The Tree Grows, And Will Require Pruning For Vehicular Or Pedestrian Clearance Beneath The Canopy, Not Particularly Showy; Should Be Grown With A Single Leader.
v Thorn Presence: No Thorns
v Branch Density: Densely-Branching.
v Pruning Requirement: Requires Pruning To Develop.
v Wood Type: Hard and Heavy
v Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
v Leaf Type: Even Pinnately Compound
v Leaf Size: 20-60 Cm Long
v Leaflets Number: 6-8 Pairs
v Leaflet Size: 5-15 Cm Long
v Leaflet Margin: Entire; Undulate
v Leaflet Shape: Elliptic (Oval)
v Leaflet Apex: Acute
v Leaflet Base:
v Leaflet Venation: Pinnate
v Leaf Type and Persistence: Deciduous
v Leaflet Blade Length: 4 To 8 Inches
v Leaf Color: Green, Shiny
v Fall Color: Yellow or
v Fall Characteristic: Not Showy
v Inflorescence: In Racemes [cluster]
v Raceme Type: Axillary, Pendulous, Simple, And 1 Or 2 Feet Long
v Flower Color: Yellow [Bright]
v Flower Characteristics: Summer Flowering; Very Showy
v Flowering: From May to August
v Sepals: total 5 and green in color.
v Calyx: Composed Of 5 Nearly Equal, Oblong, Obtuse, Smooth Sepals.
v Petals: total 5 and yellow in color.
v Corolla: Consists Of 5 Petals, Which Are Oval, Unequal, Concave, Spreading, And Waved. The 3 Lower Filaments, Much Longer Than The Others, Have A Double Curve, But No Swelling.
v Stamens: total 10 and 3 are with longer stalks.
v Anthers: On The 3 Long Filaments Are Oblong, Opening By 2 Lines On The Face, While The Other 7 Are Clavate, With Pores At The Small End.
v Ovary: Filiform, Smooth, Cylindrical, Curved, and 1-Celled, Containing Numerous Seeds.
v Fruit Type: Pod or Legume, Indehiscent
v Fruit Shape: Cylindrical, Pendulous, Biconcave (Forming Two Longitudinal Bands)
v Fruit Size: 40 To 60 Cm. (16 To 24 Inches) Long, Nearly 25 Mm. (1 Inch) In Diameter.
v Fruit (Unripened) Color: Green
v Fruit (Ripened) Color: Dark Brown Or Black Purple
v Fruit Consistency: Hard
v Fruit Cavity: Internally Divided Transversely Into Numerous Cells By Hard, Transverse Phragmata, Each Containing A Reddish-Brown, Glossy, Seed Embedded In A Blackish-Brown Sweet Pulp, Odor Resembling That Of Prunes.
v Seed: Oval, Glossy, And Somewhat Flattened
v Seeds In # Per Kg. 4,999-5,154.
v Fruit Appearance: Somewhat Veined, Sutures Smooth
v Fruit Maturity: Drops when Matures And Ripens During February To April.
v Fruit Covering: Dry or Hard.
v Fruit Characteristics: Does Not Attract Wildlife.
f) Ecological Aspect:
v Light requirement: tree grows in full sun
v Soil tolerances: clay; loam; sand; acidic; alkaline, well-drained
v Soil Requirements: Deep, well drained, moderately fertile soil
v Drought tolerance: moderate
v Aerosol salt tolerance: moderate
v Soil salt tolerance: moderate
v Nutritional Requirements: Balanced liquid fertilizer monthly
v Light Requirements: Full sun
v Bad Habits: Flowers attract many bees and butterflies
v Pests or diseases: None major
v Propagation: Seeds, allow to soak overnight before planting, root semi-ripe cuttings in summer
v Germplasm: Reported from the Hindustani Center of Diversity, Indian laburnum tolerates mild drought, poor soils, and slopes.
v Ecology: It Ranges from Tropical Thorn to Moist through Subtropical Thorn to Moist Forest Life Zones, Indian laburnum is reported to tolerate precipitation of 4.8 to 27.2 dm (mean of 96 cases = 14.2)
v annual temperature: 18.0 to 28.5°C (mean of 94 cases = 25.5)
v pH: of 5.5 to 8.7 (mean of 23 cases = 7.1)
v Cultivation: Although soaking the seeds in sulfuric acid results in highest germination, puncturing the seed coat proved to be the simplest, most effective method to break dormancy in Mexican studies. Seedlings planted in plastic bags containing 7 kg soil, survived transplant quite well. Cuttings did not take readily in the Mexican studies. According to Nalawadi et al (1977), Cassia fistula seeds were either soaked in concentrated H2SO4 for 5-20 minutes and then soaked in water for 24 hours, or soaked in water alone for 24 hours. Seeds soaked in water alone failed to germinate, but soaking in acid for 20 minutes resulted in 84% germination. Additional soaking in water did not further improve germination.
v Harvesting: Timber or firewood can be felled as needed. It is usually more practical to harvest in the dry season, making it easier to suncure or airdry the timber or bark. Besides other farm duties tend to be less pressing then, at least in the garden, once irrigation is accomplished.
v Yields and Economics: Among the tanners of Dindigul,
Coimbatore, and other places in South India, the bark, being favored by the tanners, was collected from the forests at the rate of 200-500 MT/year in South India alone.
v Energy: The plant is being considered for fuelwood, weighing slightly over 800 kg/m.
v Data of culture: It is multiplied by seeds, that must be put under pre-sowing treatments, such as immersion in hot water or sulfuric acid. It pleases of sunny exhibition and certain humidity, since it comes from Asian humid zones. It is necessary to cultivate it in protected situation, because although it tolerates certain intensity of cold, not therefore the frosts. It is cultivated like isolated unit or forming groups, emphasizing remarkably his flowering.
The pharmacodynamics is study of properties of drug, and its action on body. This branch mainly researches different drugs, finds their active chemical components, their particular action on one or many organs. The study by this branch finds the properties of drug. According to its properties the drug acts in a particular manner, also different uses of drug in different form also can be known. The properties of the compiled drug 'cassia fistula' are as follow.
The main aspects are as follow:
a) Properties of drug according to Ayurveda.
b) Chemical composition.
a) According to Ayurvedic system of properties of drug the following factors are involved.
v Guna: Guru, Mrudu, Snigdha.
v Rasa: Madhur, Tikta.
v Veerya: Sheet.
v Vipak: Madhur. 4,5,6,16,30.
b) Chemical composition
v The pulp has a feeble, nauseous odor, a mucilagino-saccharine taste, and contains, according to Henry, sugar, gum, impure tannic acid, coloring matter, a gluten-like matter, and moisture. It keeps longest when preserved in the pod. It is largely soluble in water, and its active parts are taken up by alcohol. 6
v Constituents: Glycosides of anthraquinone, glutine, pectin, senosides A & B, bitters, vegetable gelatin, gum, gluten, sugars, nitrogenous extractive matter, perenchima and water. 13
v According to Roskoski et al (1980), studying Mexican material, the seeds contain 5.31% humidity, 4.55% ash, 24.00% crude protein, 4.43% crude fat, 6.68% crude fiber, and 50.36% carbohydrates with a 81.17% in vitro digestibility. The foliage contains 11.21% humidity, 6.39% ash, 15.88% crude protein, 6.65% crude fat, 20.01% crude fiber, 39.86% carbohydrates with a 88.43% in vitro digestibility. In comparison, the FAO (Gohl, 1981) reports the leaves to contain, on a zero moisture basis, 17.6 g protein, 7.8% g fat, 66.8 g total carbohydrate, 30.2 g fiber, 7.8 g ash, 3,270 mg Ca, and 330 mg P per 100 g. Flowers contain ceryl alcohol, kaempferol, rhein, and a bianthroquinone glycoside, which on hydrolysis, yields fistulin and rhamnose. Leaves contain rhein, rheinglucoside, and sennosides A and B. The rootbark contains tannin, phlobaphenes, and oxyanthraquinone substances, which probably consist of emodin and chrysophanic acid; also contains (bark and heartwood) fistuacacidin, barbaloin, and rhein. Stembark contains lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and hexacosanol. 22
v Pods yield fistulic acid maximum. Which after saponification gives lignoceric acid, n triacontanol, n triacountane-1,30-diol. The pulp has protein – 19%, carbohydrates – 23.6%. the amino acid composition of protein is - alanine – 1.75%, aspartic acid – 2.15%, glutanic acid – 2.89%, glycine – 1.75%, leucine – 0.69%, methionine – 0.8%, phenylalanine – 0.71%, tryphone – 1.09%. Seeds yield water soluble dark colored gum, an oil with chemicals as – spgr20 – 0.9112, n40p – 1.4672, sapnal – 184.2, acetylval – 9.2, acidval – 2.9, iodval – 109.3, thiocyanogenval – 66.6, some fatty acids of oil are – palmitic – 16.0, linoceric – 5.2, oleic – 30.7, linoleic – 48.1%, also gluctomannen, sugars and amino acids are present. Leaves yield – crude protein – 15.06, ether extract – 10.15, crude fibres – 24.19, minerals – 7.04, calcium – 2.61, phosphorus – 0.2, also sinosides A & B, chrysophanol, physcion, rhein and its glucocides, kaempferol, quercetin, (-) epiafzelechin & its 3-0-B-D glucopyramoside, (-) epicatechin, procyanidin B-2, two isomers of epiafzelechinepicatechin, four isomers of (2s) – 7,4 dihydroxyflavanepiafzelechin and gallic acid, protocatechinic acid, ellagic acid, citric acid, mallic acid and succinic acid. The Root bark yields – mixture of 3 flavonoids, one of them is fistucacidin and other two frations (CFR I & II) obtained are antifungal. The flowers yield kaempferol, leucopelargonidin, tetramer, rhein & glycosides, cerylalcohol, fistulin rhamnoside, aurantiamid, stigmosterol, 28 – isofucosterol, B sitosterol and its B-D- glucosides, an easter, & methyleugenol. 10
v Due to Madhur & Snigdha – it pacifies vata dosha.
v Due to shita – it pacifies pitta dosha.
v Due to guru, Mrudu & Snigdha it acts as RECHAK and does – samshodhan of Pitta and Kapha doshas of abdomen (Kostha).
Vd.Sushant S Patil
Vidyanagar, bhusawal road,
Vidyanagar, bhusawal road,