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शुक्रवार, 18 फ़रवरी 2011


Folliculitis is inflammation of one or more hair follicles. It can occur anywhere on the skin.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Folliculitis starts when hair follicles are damaged by friction from clothing, blockage of the follicle, or shaving. In most cases of folliculitis, the damaged follicles are then infected with the bacteria Staphylococcus (staph).
Barber's itch is a staph infection of the hair follicles in the beard area of the face, usually the upper lip. Shaving makes it worse. Tinea barbae is similar to barber's itch, but the infection is caused by a fungus.
Pseudofolliculitis barbae is a disorder that occurs mainly in black men. If curly beard hairs are cut too short, they may curve back into the skin and cause inflammation.


Common symptoms include a rash, itching, and pimples or pustules near a hair follicle in the neck, groin, or genital area. The pimples may crust over.

Signs and tests

A diagnosis is primarily based on how the skin looks. Lab tests may show which bacteria or fungus is causing the infection.


Hot, moist compresses may promote drainage of the affected follicles. Treatment may include antibiotics applied to the skin (mupirocin) or taken by mouth (dicloxacillin), or antifungal medications to control the infection.

Expectations (prognosis)

Folliculitis usually responds well to treatment, but may come back.


  • Folliculitis may return
  • Infection may spread to other body areas

Calling your health care provider

Apply home treatment and call your health care provider if symptoms come back frequently, if they last longer than 2 or 3 days, or if the infection spreads.


To prevent further damage to the hair follicles and infection:
  • Reduce friction from clothing
  • Avoid shaving the area if possible (if shaving is necessary, use a clean, new razor blade or an electric razor each time)
  • Keep the area clean
  • Avoid contaminated clothing and washcloths

बुधवार, 16 फ़रवरी 2011

Hemidesmus indicus

Hemidesmus indicus - Sugandi, Sariva
Apocynaceae - Subtropical India -
FAMILY: Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family)
GENUS: Hemidesmus
SPECIES: Indicus
COMMON NAMES: Ananta-mula, Anantmoola, Ananthamoola, Anantmula, Asclepias pseudosarsa, Country Sarasaparilla, Durivel, East Indian Sarsaparilla, Eternal root, False Sarsaparilla, Fragrant one, Gadisugandhi, Gopakanya, Hemidesmus pubescens, Hemidismus Indica-Radix, Kapuri, Karibandha, Magrabu, Muttavapulagamu, Naga-jihva, Naruninti, Nunnari, Nunnery root, Onontomulo, Periploca indica, Sariva, Smilax aspera, Sogade, Sugandhi-pala, Sugandi root, Upalasari, White Sariva.

Hemidesmus Indicus, also known in ancient Ayurveda medicine as Sugandi, has been revered for its medicinal properties for nearly a thousand years. Sugandi is a perennial, fast-growing thin creeper vine; that sends tendrils out at every node to cling to the surrounding vegetation for stability and support. The leaves are very slender, smooth, oval shaped, closely resembling blades of grass, and they maintain a uniform shiny dark green color throughout the year. The stems will stiffen and become woody over time, the bark will vary in color from dark red, rust to brown. In the right climate it will produce flowers almost all year round; the flowers are small, thin and elongated, light green with a purple hue inside. The seeds are white and covered in tiny silvery white hairs. The root system is sparse, linear and usually produces one main root with very few side branches. The roots are known to be very aromatic, emitting a sweet scent reminiscent of a combination of vanilla, cinnamon and almonds.

Sugandi is found growing indigenously all over southern Asia, but it originated in India where it is still primarily found growing wildly. It is also known to grow in Malaysia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. This ancient healing plant has been transported to all parts of the world and is prized by many horticulturists and practitioners of traditional medicine for its healing properties and aromatic qualities.

Hemidismus Indica is known to naturally produce a wide variety of beneficial compounds known for their healing and calmative effects. This plant has been the focus of many different scientific studies, and there are over a hundred unique compounds that have been isolated from the roots, stems, leaves and flowers. Some of the many compounds found in this plant include: 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzaldehyde, 2-hyroxy-4-methoxy benzenoid, alpha-amyrins triterpene, benzoic acid, beta-amyrins, beta-sitosterol, coumarin, delta-dehydro lupeol acetate, delta-dehydrolupanyl-3-beta-acetate, desmine, glucosides, hemidesmin-1, hemidesmin-2, hemidescine, hemidesmic acid, hemidesmine, hemidesmol, hemidesterol, hemidine, hemisine, hexa triconate acid, hyperoside, indicine, indicusin, lactone, lupanone, lupeol acetate, lupeol octacosonate, medidesmine, p-methoxy salicylic aldehyde, pregnane ester diglycoside desinine, sarsapogenin, sarsaponin, sitosterol, smilacin, smilgenin, stigmasterol, tannin, triterpenoid saponin, vanillin, as well as many other potentially psychoactive compounds.

TRADITIONAL USE: Traditional Ayurveda medicine practitioners have used Sariva for hundreds and hundreds of years; it was used as a healing herb as well as a magical-spiritual dream herb. They used it to treat stomach problems, cure rashes, ease the mind, quell the symptoms of syphilis, to help induce trance states and deep meditation, and to clarify and prepare the mind for the dream world. Ayurveda tradition holds that the roots of the Hemidesmus Indicus plant will transport the user to deeper states of sleep and through the four gates of dreaming, as written about by Carlos Castaneda, in The Art of Dreaming. It is used to help the experienced conscious dreamer achieve lucidity during the dream or REM phase of sleep. Ayurveda healers also prescribed it to men suffering from low libido and sexual impotence, it is believed that one of active compounds produced by roots improves male testosterone levels and therefore improves sexual desire, sperm count and overall sexual performance. In traditional Hindi folk wisdom, the healer or sages used the roots to cleanse the blood of toxins, soothe skin irritations and rashes, to reduce the burning sensations caused by urinary tract infections, to reduce fevers, as well as to heal moderate cases of acne. Women use Sugandi roots to promote a healthy pregnancy and to reduce the possibility of a miscarriage.
TRADITIONAL PREPARATION: Because so many different tribal communities in India utilize Hemidesmus Indicus for its healing properties, there are many different ways in which the plant is prepared. Most of the preparations call for the roots of the plant to be dried and ground into a fine powder, which is then either mixed with other medicinal herbs to make salves and balms, or the powder is steeped in warm water and then ingested as a tea. One popular recipe requires two ounces of the root to be boiled in water for an hour and the resulting liquid must then be consumed over the course of twenty-four hours. However, it is known that some of the active compounds are destroyed while the roots are boiling, so it may be wise to simmer the roots instead of allowing them to remain in boiling water. Tribes in India crush the roots and then pressing them to extract the vital juices which are then consumed immediately to minimize degradation of the active compounds and revitalize the body. Modern preparations merely encapsulate the dried root powder into gelatin capsules, and recommend consuming five grams per day for maximum health benefits. The native people living throughout the Himalayan highlands and elsewhere on the Indian subcontinent are known to grind dried Sugandi roots and leaves and mix them with Ocimum tenuiflorum (Holy Basil) seeds, Aegle marmelos (Bel Fruit), Nelumbo nucifera (Blue Lotus), Picrorhiza kurroa (Katuka), Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) and then smoke the resulting blend, which induces visions and acts as a catalyst, launching the user into profound waking dream states.
MEDICINAL USES: Over the centuries, Ayurveda sages have developed myriad medicinal uses and a wide variety of traditional medicines made with Sariva roots, several of these traditional uses have been validated by modern science and continue to be prescribed to this day. The majority of traditional remedies and medicinal tonics are almost exclusively made from the plant’s roots; however there are several skin creams and digestive aids that utilize the whole plant. There are six major therapeutic uses that have been time tested and shown to be efficacious: Hemidesmus Indicus is effective as an anti-inflammatory, diuretic, vulnerary, anti-miscarriage, to improve fertility and treat syphilis. For hundreds of years Ayurveda shaman have used Sugandi root to promote a calm and tranquil state of mind, to maintain mental clarity while falling asleep and to achieve lucidity while dreaming. This is definitely a powerful dream herb that is used by many people to aide in meditation, trance, and to induce lucid dreams. There is also significant scientific evidence that Hemidesmus Indicus can be used effectively as a treatment for arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, epileptic seizures, high blood pressure, immune disorders, and to relieve stress.
TRADITIONAL EFFECTS: Sugandi root is a powerful Ayurveda Shamanic dream traveling plant and should be studied with great care. The most noteworthy effects are the calming, clarifying and tranquil feelings produced by consuming the root tea. After dinking the tea users describe an overall relaxing, calming sensation that envelopes them with feelings of euphoria and puts their mind at ease. Many avid dreamers drink the tea an hour before they go to bed, they report that the tea helps them maintain mental clarity and focus as they drift off to sleep. Later in the night they explain that they are able to recognize that they are dreaming and then they can easily achieve lucidity, often four or five times in one night. The roots are also known to help relieve stress by inducing overwhelming sensation of relaxation, euphoria, and tranquility.

Vishali Ingale -Gholap

Lagophthalmos: and ptosis

Definition : Incomplete closure of the palpabral aperture when attempt is made to close the eyes

Causes of Lagophthalmos

Contraction of lids due to cicatrization or a congenital deformity
Paralysis of Orbicularis
Proptosis due to exophthalmic goitre, orbital tumour/ inflammmation etc.
Laxity of tissue and absence of reflex blinking who are extremely ill.

Clinical Picture

1.Inability to close eye(s)
2.Symptoms of dry eye
3.Blurring of vision
4.Foreign body sensation

1.Incomplete closure of lid
2.Exposure of conjunctiva and cornea
3.Dryness, congestion
4.Hazyness of cornea, punctate infiltration
1. Corneal ulcer (Non-healing)
'� - a (�] x`] bri;font-size:178%'>1.Inability to close eye(s)
2.Symptoms of dry eye
3.Blurring of vision
4.Foreign body sensation

Medical Treatment
1.Lubricating Eye drops
2.Control of infection
3.Protection of ocular surface
Surgical Treatment:
Tarsorrhaphy  (Lateral or paramedian)
. Corneal ulcer (Non-healing)


Definition: Drooping of upper lid usually due to paralysis or defective development of the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) 


1. Simple
2. Complicated
1. Neurogenic
2. Myogenic
3. Aponeurotic
4 Mechanical

Pseudoptosis – in Phthisis bulbi and anophthalmos
Condition may be Unilateral or Bilateral
Partial or complete

Normal position of lids
Abnormal – Margin Reflex Distance (MRD)- Normal MRD is 4 mm +/- 1 mm
Ptosis of less than 2 mm – Mild
Ptosis of 3 mm – moderate
Ptosis of 4 mm or more – severe

Compensatory Mechanism 

Overaction of frontalis
Throwing back the head
Assessment of LPS function –
Excursion of 8 mm or more – good action
Excursion of 5-7 mm – Fair action
Excursion of 4 mm or less – poor
Look for Bell phenomenon 

Congenital Ptosis

Commonest form of ptosis
Usually bilateral / Heriditary
Due to defective development of LPS
Simple congenital ptosis is an isolated abnormality

Complicated – when associated with developmental abnormality of surrounding structures
Associated Sup rectus palsy
Abnormal synkineses – Marcus Gunn ptosis
Dystrophy of the LPS  
Blepharophimosis syndrome (Ptosis, horizontal shortening of palp aperture, epicanthus inversus, telecanthus lat ectropion of the lower lids)

Treatment of Congenital Ptosis 

Age (3-5 years), early surgery when pupil is covered
Fasanella –servat operation (indicated when ptosis is 1.5 – 2 mm – excision of 4-5 mm upper tarsus)
LPS resection – 10 mm resection is minimum (resection ranges from 12 – 24 mm)
Conjunctival (Blaskovics operation) or skin (Everbusch operation) route for surgery

Frontalis suspension- intact LPS with poor function (3 mm or less)
4-0 Supramid suture or fascia lata is used
Complications associated with this operation
Acquired Ptosis

Usually unilateral
1.Neurogenic – Third nerve paralysis or due to reduced sympathetic innervation (Horner syndrome – ptosis, anhydrosis and miosis)
Treatment – of cause, crutch spectacle, surgery – LPS resection/ Frontalis suspension

2. Myogenic – gradual onset, bilateral condition, symmetrical
Myotonic dystrophy
Chronic progressive exophthalmoplegia
Mysthenia gravis ( damage to acetyl-cholin receptor at postsynaptic membrane with presence of antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies)

Aponeurotic Ptosis
Is involutional is due to weakness or disinsertion of LPS aponeurosis from ant surface of tarsal plate
High lid fold with good LPS function
Treatment – reinsertion of LPS and resection of LPS
Mechanical  Ptosis - Tumour or inflammation weigh down the lid

Black Eye – swelling and ecchymosis of lids and conjunctiva
Cryptophthalmos – rare condition characterized by presence of skin passing continuously from brow over the eye to the cheek.

Vd. Sushant Shashikant Patil
Vidyanagar, bhusawal road
tal - yawal
dist- jalgaon


We are aware about several healthy aspects of honey and how it can come in handy to cure minor illnesses. Here is a collection of all the other latest developments that throw light on goodness of honey.
honey and ayurvedic remediesHoney, considered to be nature’s original sweetening agent, is also re-discovered as a natural source of energy, offering unique combination of nutritional benefits. Apart from being a concentrated energy source, honey contains a range of vital vitamins and minerals including vitamin B6, riboflavin, thiamine, pantothenic acid, copper, iron, zinc, calcium, potassium, sodium, phosphorous, manganese, magnesium, and copper that no additional supplement source can provide.
Honey also contains several compounds that serve as antioxidants. Pinocembrin is a unique antioxidant found only in honey. The darker the honey, the higher the amount of minerals, it is said.
Antioxidants fight free radicals and help reverse aging. The antioxidants in honey neutralize free radicals that slow aging. There are several studies confirming antioxidant properties of honey, including that by a Californian University, which confirmed that honey contains as many antioxidants as in apples, spinach, oranges and strawberries.
Today, scientists are re-discovering the effectiveness of honey in therapeutic nutrition.
The unique composition of honey makes it useful in treating several ailments including efficient treatment for chronic wounds concerning lower leg and abdomen.
Honey, being a rich source of carbohydrates, offers instant energy, mainly due to the presence of glucose and fructose. Therefore, a spoonful of honey consumed just before a workout is thought to be a good energy booster.
During a recent study, which was presented at the Annual Experimental Biology Meeting, it was indicated that honey, when used as a source of carbohydrate during exercise, considerably improved performance and power during endurance cycling trials.
Consumption of honey, as a supplement with calcium, can enhance calcium absorption.
Honey is an anti-carcinogen, possessing marinades that effectively control production of potential cancer-causing compounds (HAAs). This fact was discovered during a study when marinated steak and chicken were fried. The HAAs so-formed when meat is cooked at high temperatures, begins to char or blacken.
Honey also showed resistance to microbial spoilage, as micro-organisms are unable to grow in honey due to its low water activity.
A new research published in this year’s July edition of FASEB Journal explained how honey kills bacteria. The research reveals that bees make a protein, called defensin-1, which they add to the honey. This can be used in treating burns, skin infections, and to develop new drugs to fight antibiotic-resistant infections.
Honey also helps in reducing dental plaque, owing to the presence of considerable plague-fighting antioxidants. The enzyme hydrogen peroxide produced by honey, is believed to be the main reason for anti-microbial activity of honey.
Honey on toast cures bad hangover. According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, honey, the natural sweetener is the best way to treat toxins in the body post-binge. It contains fructose, essential to help break down alcohol into harmless by-products.


Several herbs and spices contain chemical compounds that reduce chances of cell damage and other such issues associated with serious health conditions and diseases. This is largely due to the presence of disease-fighting antioxidants in spices, which is in fact, more than that present in fruits and veggies.
According to researchers at the University of Georgia, the traditional spice, Ginger, works in the same way as anti-inflammatories like Ibuprofen and naproxen, offering even more pain relief and less side effects.
The researchers studied 74 volunteers taking either ginger supplement or placebo for 11 days. On the eighth day, the participants were subjected to a muscle-taxing work out, and the ginger group reported 25 percent less pain than the control group.
According to Dr. Issac Mathai, Medical Director, Soukya International Holistic Health Center, Bangalore, the carminative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-histaminic properties of ginger are well-known. It is a part of various herbal formulations used in treating rheumatic disorders, arthritis, migraine and abdominal colic, with pain being the most pre-disposing symptoms.
“Maintaining a daily intake of 1-3gms of ginger really helps,” he suggests.
Adding cinnamon and cloves to your cereal or desert may help in preventing formation of bad high blood sugar compounds that could otherwise lead to diabetes and related heart ailments. This property of cinnamon and cloves are largely due to the presence of anti-oxidants in them. Herbs such as sage, rosemary and tarragon also have similar effect on the body.
Garlic stimulates blood circulation to the brain and kills brain cancer cells, a scientific study has confirmed. It was also discovered that regular intake of garlic can lower total cholesterol and triglyceride levels by 10% on an average.
The other commonly used spices found beneficial for health are basil (has anti-inflammatory qualities that provide resistance form Alzheimer’s), cumin (slows growth breast and colon cancer cells and improves conditions like insomnia, memory loss, digestion, respiratory ailments, kidney health and metabolism).