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मंगलवार, 23 अगस्त 2011


The lehyas and Rasayanaas are semi solid, generally, pasty materials having both nutritious and curative effects. The product is generally prepared directly from the drug components after powdering them or cooking. The cooked/ powdered materials are mixed with jaggerry and heated slowly for a long time. The final product should have a semisolid/ solid honey type texture and appearance. Ghee, honey, spices etc are also added to the lehya / rasayana at the end of the preparations.
The active principles present in the raw drugs, with or without hydrolytic and pyrrolitic chemical changes get dissolved in the jaggery based rasayanam. Here the starch, protein and also the fat present in the raw materials give texture for the rasayana. Due to the presence of excess sugar of this product, faster absorption of the active principles may be taking place in the biological system because the sugar is known to get absorbed faster . However, available literature gives less information on the clinical study results on the active principles based curative effects of the lehya/ rasayana. Heat and water based changes of the rasayana / lehyas areinevitable because the final products are heated for a long duration for getting the actual paste like product. Inorganic chemicals/salts are also sometimes added as directed in rasachikitsa texts.
Lehas and Rasayanas given in Sahasra Yogam
1. Vilwaadileham
2. Kooshmaanda leham
3. Maanibhadra leham
4. Manibhadragulam
5. Pinchaadileham
6. Draakshaaadi leham
7. Thippalaadi rasaayanam
8. Thiruvruthaadi leham
9. Sataavarigulam
10. Aswagandhaadi leham
11. Ikshuraadi leham
12. Madhusnuhi rasaayanam
13. Vyoshaadi rasaayanam,,,

Gurmeet Singh

Chamba, Himachal Pradesh


Drug Medical Use Plant Source

Drug Medical Use Plant Source
Ajmaline For heart arrhythmia Rauvolfia spp.
Aspirin Analgesic, anti-inflammator Filipendula ulmaria
Atropine Pupil dilator Atropa belladonna
Benzoin Oral disinfectant Styrax tonkinensis
Caffeine Stimulant Camellia sinensis
Camphor For rheumatic pain Cinnamomum camphora
Cascara Purgative Rhamnus purshiana
Cocaine Ophthalmic anaesthetic Erythoxylum coca
Codeine Analgesic, antitussive Papaver somniferum
Colchicine For gout Colchicium autumnale
Demecolcine For leukaemia, lymphomata C. autumnale
Deserpidine Antihypertensive Rauvolfia canescens
Dicoumarol Antithrombotic Melilotus officinalis
Digoxin For atrial fibrillation Digitalis purpurea
Digitoxin For atrial fibrillation D. purpurea
Emetine For amoebic dysentery Psychotria ipecacuanha
Ephedrine Bronchodilator Ephedra sinica
Eugenol For toothache Syzygium aromaticum
Gallotanins Haemorrhoid suppository Hamamelis virginia
Hyoscyamine Anticholinergic Hyoscyamus niger
Ipecac Emetic Psychotria ipecacuanha
Ipratropium Bronchodilator H. niger
Morphine Analgesic Papaver somniferum
Noscapine Antitussive Papaver somniferum
Papain Attenuator of mucus Carica papaya
Papaverine Antispasmodic Papaver somniferum
Physostigimine For glaucoma Physostigma venenosum
Picrotoxin Barbiturate antidote Anamirta cocculus
Pilocarpine For glaucoma Pilocarpus jaborandi
Podophyllotoxin For condyloma acuminatum Podophyllum peltatum
Proscillaridin For cardiac malfunction Drimia maritima
Protoveratrine Antihypertensive Veratrum album
Psedoephedrine For rhinitis E. sinica
Psoralen For vitiligo Psoralea corylifolia
Quinine For malaria prophylaxis Cinchona pubescens
Quinidine For cardiac arrhythmia C. pubescens
Rescinnamine Antihypertensive R. serpentia
Reserpine Antihypertensive R. serpentia
Sennoside A, B Laxative Cassia angustifolia
Scopalamine For motion sickness Datura stramonium
Sigmasterol Steroidal precursor Physostigma venenosum
Strophanthin For congestive heart failure Strophanthus gratus
Tubocurarine Muscle relaxant Chondrodendron tomentosum
Teniposide For bladder neoplasms Podophyllum peltatum
Tetrahydro-cannabinol Antiemetic Cannabis sativa
Theophylline Diuretic , antiasthmatic Camellia sinensis
Toxiferine Relaxant in surgery Strychnos guianensis
Vinblastine For Hodgkin’s disease Catharanthus roseus
Vincristine For paediatric leukaemia C. roseus
Xanthotoxin For vitiligo Ammi majus

Gurmeet Singh

Chamba, Himachal Pradesh


बुधवार, 10 अगस्त 2011


Botanical Name:Aconitum heterophyllum
Sanskrit Name:Ativisa
Common Name:Indian Atees
Family Name:Ranunculaceae

English         :  Indian Atees
Bengalih      :  Ataich
Gujarati        :  Ativakhani Kali
Hindi             :  Atis
Kannada      :  Ativisa                                                     
Malayalam   :  Atividayam
Marathi         :  Ativish                                                       
Persian        :  Vajjeturki
Punjabi         :  Atis                                                             
Tamil            :  Aitividayam
Telugu          :  Ativisa                                                        
Bhoti            :  Ais
Canarese    :  Atibaje                                                     
Cutch           :  Ativista
Sanskirit :     Aruna, Ardra, Upavisa, Kasaya, Krsna, Ghunavallabha, Candri, Visva, Visama, Sisubhaisajya, Sukakanda, Suklakanda, Sringika, Syamakanda, Svetakanda, Svedavaca, Laksha, Bhangura, Madri, Mrdvi, Mahausadha, Pithavallabha, Rakta, Madhya-Desastha.
Aruna, Ardra, Upavisa, Kasaya, Krsna, Ghuna  vallabha, Candri, Pita Vallabha, Prati Visa, Bhangura, Madhya-desastha, Mahausadha, Madri, Mrdvi, Rakta Visva, Visama, Visa, Shishu bhaishajya, Suka kanda, Shukla kanda, Shringee, Syama Kanda, Sveta, Sveta Kanda, Sveta Vaca, Ativisa and Laksa.

Word Meaning Of the Synonyms:

Aruna- A variety having reddish coloured stem
Krsna- Its black variety is called krsna due to its black colour
Ghuna Vallabha- Modified stems are relishing to insects
Prativisa- It is an antidote to many poisons
Bhangura- Roots or stems are brittle
Mahaushadha- It is an important drug in materia medica
Visva- It spreads to every part of the body due to its sukshma guna
Shishubhaishajya- Useful in pediatric diseases
Shukla kanda- Main stems having white colour
Shringee- Modified stems appear like horn
Suka Kanda- Due to the fragile nature the stem is easily breakable
Ativisa- Even though it occurs under visha varga it is non-poisonous
Kashmira- Grows mainly in the region of Kashmir

Vagbhata:-  Ativisa, Visa
Sodhala:-   Sukla, Krsna, Aruna
Madanadi Nighantu:-  Raktha, Swetha, Krisna, Pita

INDUKARA- In his context describes visa and ativisa as dvaya The herb “Visa” is delineated in sathapatha brhamana, Sayana considered this plant as “Vyapina”

Acharya P.V.SHARMA compared it to a variety of BANAPARANI however SAYANAS version on the synonyms of visa (ie) visakakiindicates that visa and ativisa are one and the same.

CHARAKA-denotes this plants only with the name “ativisa”, he also explains as “prativisa” twice in his text in Charaka Samhitha-Chikitsa Sthana.

SUSRUTHA-also quoted it as ‘ativisa” and “prativisa” term is used in the context of ativisa in Susruta Samhitha-Uttara Sthana.

VAGBHATA-There must be two varieties (ie) “Aitvisa and Prativisa”. It is clear from the fact that Vagbhata mention about Visadvaya in Ashtanga Hridaya-Uttara Sthana.
Vagbhata for the first time quoted the term Ghunesta in Ashtanga Hridaya-Chikitsa Sthana , Ghunapriya in Ashtanga Hridaya-Sutra Sthana  to denote ativisa.

Charka Samhita:
 Lekhaniya, Arshoghna, Titktaskandha, Sirovirecana

Susruta Samhita: Pippalyadi, Mustadi, Vacadi

Astanga Sangraha: Lekaniya, Arshoghna, Vacadi, Mustadi, Pippalyadi

Astanga Hridaya: Pippalyadi, Mustadi, Vacadi

Dhanvantari Nighantu: Guducyadi Varga

Sodhala Nighantu: Guducyadi Varga, Anekarthavarga

Kaiyadeva Nighantu: Oushadi Varga

Bhavaprakasha Nighantu: Haritakyadi Varga

Raja Nighantu: Pippalyadi Varga, Upavisa gana

Generally plants of this family are annuals or perennials herbs or rarely shrubs

Leaves : Radical or alternate, rarely opposite

Flowers : Bisexual or unisexual, regular or irregular

Sepals : Five or more, rarely fewer or very rarely persistent, often petoloid, imbricate or rarely       valvate.

Petals : Five or more or zero, rarely four or three, hypogynous, imbricate, often minute.

Stamens : Hypogynous usually numerous in many rows

Anthers : Adnate, opening laterally
Carpel’s : Numerous, rarely free
Stigma : Simple
Ovules: Numerous or solitary on ventral suture
Fruits: One seeded beaked or plumose, achenes or many seeded follicles or rarely capsules or berry

Ativisa is a native of the Western Himalayas and it is found in Gurhwal, Kumaon and Kashmir. Also is Sub- Alphine and Alphine zone in the temperate zone of about 2500-3900 meters.

An erect, perennial and tuberous herb, glabrous. Stem erect, simple or branched from 15- 19cm. High glabrous below, finely crispo-pubescent in the upper part, lowest 2-4 internodes short.

Leaves: Heteromorphous, glabrous, lowest on long petiole (13cms) blade-orbicular cordate or ovate in outline with usually narrow sinus 1-1.5cm deep, lobes usually five lobed to the middle. Lobes crenate or incisocrenate, crenate, rotundate, apiculate, intermediate leaves shortly petioled or sessile.

Inflorescence: Slender receme or a lax, leafy panicle, crispo pubescent, sepals bluish or violet rarely white, upper sepals almost navicular obiliquely erect shortly or obscurely beaked 18-20mm high, 8-9mm wide, carpels 5 elliptic, oblong.

Follicles: Contagious, linear-oblong, straight 16-18mm long

Seeds: Obpyrandial 3-4mm long blackish brown

Roots: Paired biennials, tuberous, whitish or grey 2.8cm long, and 0.4-1.5 cm thick grey brown outside with scattered pointed minute notches. Starchy white inside 4-9 xylem bundles near the periphery embedded in the secondary phloem tissue.

Flowering and Fruiting: Rainy autumn season onwards, July to September. Fruits have two sections one from previous year and one from the current year.


Roots contain non toxic amorphous alkaloids and it is one of the best bitter tonics for children

Alkaloid atisine, Aconitic acid, Tannic acid, Palmitic acid, Stearic acid

Abundant starch, fat, vegetable mucilage, cane sugar, glycerides and Ash

Atisinol, Heterophyllisine, Entatisine dipterpenoid lactone, F-dishydroatisine, Benzylleteratisine, Hetisine, Hetratisine, Hetidine, Atinide, Hestinone, Carotene, Diterpene alkaloid

Four Diterpenes viz., Heterophyllisine, Hetidine, Atidine, Hetisinone, Atisine

Rasa:      Katu, Tikta
Guna:      Laghu, Ruksha
Virya:      Usna
Vipaka:   Katu
Karma:    Dipanam, Pacana, Grahi, Sotha Hara, Visaghna, Krimihara, Arshoghna, Jwarahara,      Kasa hara
Dosakarma: Tri doshahara

PARTS USED: The tuberous root is medicinally used both alone and in combination

Root powder 1-3gm/day (divided dose)
Solid extract as tonic 65-195mg in terms of 2% alkaloid
Solid extract as anthelminthic 49-65mg in terms of 2% alkaloid
Solid extract as antiperiodic 260-390mg in terms of 2% alkaloid

Over dosage (more than 5-6gm) produces symptoms like dryness of mouth, tremors etc
Drugs which are vata hara in nature may be useful under these conditions

Roots of Ativisa are cut into pieces and tied in a cloth. Then it is soaked in cow’s urine for three days by changing cow’s urine every day. Afterwards the pieces are shade dried.

Antidote for poison:

The dasanga agada formulated by KASYAPA cures the poison of all kinds of insects

Ghee prepared with Ativisa and cow’s milk is orally administered or as a nasal drops in case of acute poisoning.

Ativisa is made into paste by grinding with honey and administered orally

Digestive System: It has appetizing, digestive, astringent, antihaemorrhoidal, and antihelmentic due to its bitter, pungent and ushna properties. Useful in diarrhea and dysentery.

Circulatory System: It is a blood purifier, haemostatic and anti-inflammatory because it alleviates pitta.

Respiratory System: It reduces phlegm and clears airways.

Reproductive System: Purifies milk secretion because of its katu property. Aphrodisiacs due to usna property.

Temperature: Febrifuge, useful as a prophylactic in intermittent fever

Satmikarana: Reduces body weight due to ruksha guna, bitter tonic and antidote for poisons, useful in scorpion bite.

DOSA: Diseases induced by all three dhosas but mainly useful in diseases due to kapha and pitta.

Digestive System: Useful in dyspepsia, indigestion, amadosa, vomiting, fever associated with diarrhea, Haemorrhoids, helminthiasis.

Respiratory System: Useful in cold and cough

Reproductive System: Useful in impotency

Temperature: Effective in fever mainly periodical fever. It should be given in the dose of 2-3gm as prophylactic treatment for malaria and act faster if given along with any fragrant drug

Satmikaran: Useful in post pyrexia debility because it is a bitter tonic. It is an antidote for rat poison.

Specific Uses: No medicine is better than Aconitum heterophyllum for pediatric diseases.

Indicated diseases: Atisara, Jwara, Kasa, Bala roga, Visa roga, Ama dosa, Chardi, Krimi roga, Agnimandya, Raktha pitta, Yakrit roga, Trsna, Pinasa, Arsa, Pittodara.